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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Managing the Digital Firm FOURTEENTH EDITION Global Edition

  Judul Buku : MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Managing the Digital Firm FOURTEENTH EDITION Global Edition

Judul Buku:MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Managing the Digital Firm FOURTEENTH EDITION Global Edition
Pengarang:Kenneth C. Laudon & Jane P. Laudon
Penerbit:PEARSON
Cetakan:Fourteenth Edition
Tahun Terbit:2016
Bahasa:Inggris
Jumlah Halaman:670
Kertas Isi:HVS
Cover:Soft
Ukuran:22 x 28
Berat:1400
Kondisi:Baru
Harga: Rp514,000


Stock:1


MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Managing the Digital Firm FOURTEENTH EDITION Global Edition
Pengarang : Kenneth C. Laudon & Jane P. Laudon
Penerbit : PEARSON

CONTENT

Part One Organizations, Management, and the Networked Enterprise 33
Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today 34
Opening Case: Rugby Football Union Tries Big Data 35
1.1 How are information systems transforming business, and why are they so essential for running and managing a business today? 37
How Information Systems are Transforming Business 37 • What's New In Management Information Systems? 39 • Globalization Challenges and Opportunities: A Flattened World 40
Interactive Session: Management Meet the New Mobile Workers 41
The Emerging Digital Firm 44 • Strategic Business Objectives of Information Systems 44
1.2 What is an information system? How does it work? What are its management, organization, and technology components and why are complementary assets essential for ensuring that information systems provide genuine value for an organization? 48
What is an Information System? 48 • Dimensions of Information Systems 50
Interactive Session: Technology UPS Competes Globally with information Technology 55
It Isn't Just Technology: A Business Perspective on Information Systems 57 • Complementary Assets: Organizational Capital and the Right Business Model 58
1.3 What academic disciplines are used to study information systems and how does each contribute to an understanding of information systems? 61
Technical Approach 61 • Behavioral Approach 62 • Approach of This Text: Sociotechnical Systems 62
Review Summary 64 • Key Terms 65 • Review Questions 65 • Discussion Questions 66
Hands-On MIS Projects 66
Management Decision Problems 66 • Improving Decision Making: Using Databases to Analyze Sales Trends 66 • Improving Decision Making: Using the Internet to Locate Jobs Requiring Information Systems Knowledge 67
Collaboration and Teamwork: 67
Case Study: Mashaweer: Online Personal Services in the Gulf 67
References- 71

Chapter 2 Global E-Business and Collaboration 72
Opening Case: Social Business at BASF 73
2.1 What are business processes? How are they related to information systems? 75
Business Processes 75 • How Information Technology Enhances Business Processes 77
2.2 How do systems serve the different management groups in a business and how do systems that link the enterprise improve organizational performance? 77
Systems for Different Management Groups 78
Interactive Session: Technology Schiphol International Hub to Become Faultless: Truth or Dare? 82
Systems for Linking the Enterprise 85 • E-business, E-commerce, and E-government 87
2.3 Why are systems for collaboration and social business so important and what technologies do they use? 88
What is Collaboration? 88 • What is Social Business? 89 • Business Benefits of Collaboration and Social Business 90 • Building a Collaborative Culture and Business Processes 91 • Thols and Technologies for Collaboration and Social Business 92
Interactive Session: Management Is Social Business Working Out? 97
2.4 What is the role of the information systems function in a business? 99
The Information Systems Department 99 • Organizing the Information Systems Function 100
Review Summary 101 • Key Terms 102 • Review Questions 102 • Discussion Questions 103
Hands-On MIS Projects 103
Management Decision Problems 103 • Improving Decision Making: Using a Spreadsheet to Select Suppliers 104 • Achieving Operational Excellence: Using Internet Software to Plan Efficient Transportation Routes 104
Collaboration and Teamwork: 104
Case Study: Modernization of NTUC Income 105
References: 108

Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy 110
Opening Case: Grupo Modelo: Competing On Processes Ill
3.1 Which features of organizations do managers need to know about to build and use information systems successfully? 113
What is an Organization? 114 • Features of Organizations 116 3.2   What is the impact of information systems on organizations? 121
Economic Impacts 121 • Organizational and Behavioral Impacts 122 • The Internet and Organizations 124 • Implications for the Design and Understanding of Information Systems 125
3.3 How do Porter's competitive forces model, the value chain model, synergies, core competencies, and network economics help companies develop competitive strategies using information systems? 126
Porter's Competitive Forces Model 126 • Information System Strategies for Dealing with Competitive Forces 128
Interactive Session: Technology Automakers Become Software Companies 130
The Internet's Impact on Competitive Advantage 132
Interactive Session: Organizations Identifying Market Niches in the Age of Big Data 133
The Business Value Chain Model 135 • Synergies, Core Competencies, and Network-Based Strategies 138
3.4 What are the challenges posed by strategic information systems and how should they be addressed? 142
Sustaining Competitive Advantage 142 • Aligning IT with Business Objectives 143 • Managing Strategic Transitions 144
Review Summary 144 • Key Terms 145 • Review Questions 145 • Discussion Questions 146
Hands-On MIS Projects 146
Management Decision Problems 146 • Improving Decision Making: Using a Database to Clarify Business Strategy 147 • Improving Decision Making: Using WebIbols to Configure and Price an Automobile 147
Collaboration and Teamwork: 147
Case Study: Can This Bookstore Be Saved? 148
References: 151

Chapter 4 Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems 154
Opening Case: Content Pirates Sail the Web 155
4.1 What ethical, social, and political issues are raised by information systems? 157
A Model for Thinking About Ethical, Social, and Political Issues 159 • Five Moral Dimensions of the Information Age 160 • Key Technology Trends That Raise Ethical Issues 160
4.2 What specific principles for conduct can be used to guide ethical decisions? 163
Basic Concepts: Responsibility, Accountability, and Liability 163
Interactive Session: Management Monitoring in the Workplace 164
Ethical Analysis 166 • Candidate Ethical Principles 166 • Professional Codes of Conduct 167 • Some Real-World Ethical Dilemmas 167
4.3 Why do contemporary information systems technology and the Internet pose challenges to the protection of individual privacy and intellectual property? 168
Information Rights: Privacy and Freedom in the Internet Age 168 •
Interactive Session: Technology Big Data Gets Personal: Behavioral Targeting 173
Property Rights: Intellectual Property 176
4.4 How have information systems affected laws for establishing accountability, liability, and the quality of everyday life? 180
Computer-Related Liability Problems 180 • System Quality: Data Quality and System Errors 181 • Quality of Life: Equity, Access, and Boundaries 182
Review Summary 189 • Key Terms 189 • Review Questions 190 • Discussion Questions 190
Hands-On MIS Projects 191
Management Decision Problems 191 • Achieving Operational Excellence: Creating a Simple Blog 191 • Improving Decision Making: Analyzing Web Browser Privacy 191
Collaboration and 'Teamwork: 192
Case Study: Facebook Privacy: There Is No Privacy 192
References: 196

Part Two Information Technology Infrastructure 197
Chapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging Technologies 198
Opening Case: Toyota Motor Europe Manages with the Cloud 199
5.1 What is IT infrastructure and what are the stages and drivers of IT infrastructure evolution? 201
Defining IT Infrastructure 202 • Evolution of IT Infrastructure 203 • Technology Drivers of Infrastructure Evolution 207
5.2 What are the components of IT infrastructure? 212
Computer Hardware Platforms 212 • Operating System Platforms 214 • Enterprise Software Applications 215 • Data Management and Storage 215
Networking/Telecommunications Platforms 216 • Internet Platforms 216
Consulting and System Integration Services 216
5.3 What are the current trends in computer hardware platforms? 217
The Mobile Digital Platform 217 • Consumerization of IT and BYOD 217 •
Interactive Session: Technology The Greening of the Data Center 218
Quantum Computing 220 *Virtualization 220 • Cloud Computing 220
Green Computing 216 • Autonomic Computing 217 • High-performance and Power-saving Processors 217 • The Mobile Digital Platform 217 • Consumerization of IT and BYOD 217
Quantum Computing 220 • Virtualization 220 • Cloud Computing 220
Interactive Session: Organizations Is It Time for Cloud Computing? 223
Green Computing 225 • High-Performance and Power-Saving Processors 225
5.4 What are the current trends in computer software platforms? 226
Linux and Open Source Software 226 • Software for the Web: Java, HTML, and HTML5 226 • Web Services and Service-Oriented Architecture 227 • Software Outsourcing and Cloud Services 229
5.5 What are the challenges of managing IT infrastructure and management solutions? 232
Dealing with Platform and Infrastructure Change 232 • Management and Governance 233 • Making Wise Infrastructure Investments 233
Review Summary 236 • Key Terms 237 • Review Questions 238 • Discussion Questions 238
Hands-On MIS Projects 239
Management Decision Problems 239 • Improving Decision Making: Using a Spreadsheet to Evaluate Hardware and Software Options 239 • Improving Decision Making: Using Web Research to Budget for a Sales Conference 239
Collaboration and Teamwork: 240
Case Study: The Pleasures and Pitfalls of BYOD 241
References: 244

Chapter 6 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management 246
Opening Case: BAE Systems 247
6.1 What are the problems of managing data resources in a traditional file environment? 250
File Organization Concepts 250 • Problems with the Traditional File Environment 250
6.2 What are the major capabilities of database management systems (DBMS) and why is a relational DBMS so powerful? 253
Database Management Systems 253 • Capabilities of Database Management Systems 258 • Designing Databases 259
6.3 What are the principal tools and technologies for accessing information from databases to improve business performance and decision making? 262
The Challenge of Big Data 262 • Business Intelligence Infrastructure 263
Interactive Session: Technology Driving ARI Fleet Management with Real-Time Analytics 265
Analytical 'Ibols: Relationships, Patterns, Trends 267 • Databases and the Web 270
6.4 Why are information policy, data administration, and data quality assurance essential for managing the firm's data resources? 272
Establishing an Information Policy 272 • Ensuring Data Quality 273
Interactive Session: Management American Water Keeps Data Flowing 275
Review Summary 276 • Key Terms 277 • Review Questions 278 • Discussion Questions 279
Hands-On MIS Projects 279
Management Decision Problems 279 • Achieving Operational Excellence: Building a Relational Database for Inventory Management 279 • Improving Decision Making: Searching Online Databases for Overseas Business Resources 280
Collaboration and Teamwork: 280
Case Study: Lego: Embracing Change by Combining BI with a Flexible Information System 281
References: 284

Chapter 7                    Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology 286
Opening Case: RFID and Wireless Technology Speed Up Production at Continental Tires 287
7.1 What are the principal components of telecommunications networks and key networking technologies? 289
Networking and Communication Trends 289 • What is a Computer Network? 290 • Key Digital Networking Technologies 292
7.2 What are the different types of networks? 295
Signals: Digital vs. Analog 295 • Types of Networks 296 • Transmission Media and Transmission Speed 297
7.3 How do the Internet and Internet technology work and how do they support communication and e-business? 298
What Is the Internet? 298 • Internet Addressing and Architecture 299 • Interactive Session: Organizations The Battle over Net Neutrality 302 Internet Services and Communication Thols 304
Interactive Session: Management Monitoring Employees on Networks: Unethical or Good Business? 307
The Web 309
7.4 What are the principal technologies and standards for wireless networking, communication, and Internet access? 318
Cellular Systems 319 • Wireless Computer Networks and Internet Access 319 • RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks 322
Review Summary 325 • Key Terms 326 • Review Questions 326 • Discussion Questions 327
Hands-On MIS Projects 327
Management Decision Problems 327 • Improving Decision Making: Using Spreadsheet Software to Evaluate Wireless Services 327 • Achieving Operational Excellence: Using Web Search Engines for Business Research 328
Collaboration and Teamwork: 328
Case Study: RFID Propels the Angkasa Library Management System 329 References: 332

Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems 334
Opening Case: "MiniDuke" Exposes EU Cybersecurity Gaps 335
8.1 Why are information systems vulnerable to destruction, error, and abuse? 337
Why Systems Are Vulnerable 338 • Malicious Software: Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses, and Spyware 340 • Hackers and Computer Crime 343
Interactive Session: Management Stuxnet and the Changing Face of Cyberwarfare 347
Internal Threats: Employees 349 • Software Vulnerability 349 8.2   What is the business value of security and control? 350
Legal and Regulatory Requirements for Electronic Records Management 351 • Electronic Evidence and Computer Forensics 352
8.3 What are the components of an organizational framework for security and control? 353
Information Systems Controls 353 • Risk Assessment 354 • Security Policy 355 • Disaster Recovery Planning and Business Continuity Planning 356 • The Role of Auditing 357
8.4 What are the most important tools and technologies for safeguarding information resources? 357
Identity Management and Authentication 357 • Firewalls, Intrusion Detection Systems, and Antivirus Software 359 • Securing Wireless Networks 362 • Encryption and Public Key Infrastructure 362 • Ensuring System Availability 364 • Security Issues for Cloud Computing and the Mobile Digital Platform 365 • Ensuring Software Quality 366
Interactive Session: Technology MWEB Business: Hacked 367
Review Summary 369 • Key Terms 369 • Review Questions 370 • Discussion Questions 371
Hands-On MIS Projects 371
Management Decision Problems 371 • Improving Decision Making: Using Spreadsheet Software to Perform a Security Risk Assessment 372 • Improving Decision Making: Evaluating Security Outsourcing Services 372
Collaboration and Teamwork: 372
Case Study: Information Security Threats and Policies in Europe 373 References: 376

Part Three Key System Applications for the Digital Age 377
Chapter 9                   Achieving Operational Excellence and Customer Intimacy: Enterprise Applications 378
Opening Case: Statoil Fuel and Retail Competes Using Enterprise Systems 379
9.1 How do enterprise systems help businesses achieve operational excellence? 381
What Are Enterprise Systems? 382 * Enterprise Software 383 • Business Value of Enterprise Systems 384
9.2 How do supply chain management systems coordinate planning, production, and logistics with suppliers? 385
The Supply Chain 385 • Information and Supply Chain Management 386 • Supply Chain Management Software 387
Interactive Session: Management DP World Takes Port Management to the Next Level with RFID 389
Global Supply Chains and the Internet 391 • Business Value of Supply Chain Management Systems 392
9.3 How do customer relationship management systems help firms achieve customer intimacy? 393
What is Customer Relationship Management? 394 • Customer Relationship Management Software 394 • Operational and Analytical CRM 398 • Business Value of Customer Relationship Management Systems 399
9.4 What are the challenges posed by enterprise applications and how are enterprise applications taking advantage of new technologies? 399
Interactive Session: Organizations Customer Relationship Management Heads to the Cloud 400
Enterprise Application Challenges 401 • Next Generation Enterprise Applications 403
Review Summary 404 • Key Terms 405 • Review Questions 405 • Discussion Questions 406
Hands-On MIS Projects 406
Management Decision Problems 406 • Improving Decision Making: Using Database Software to Manage Customer Service Requests 407 • Achieving Operational Excellence: Evaluating Supply Chain Management Services 407
Collaboration and Teamwork: 407
Case Study: WIM Industries: From MRP to ERP 408
References: 410

Chapter 10 E-Commerce: Digital Markets, Digital Goods 412
Opening Case: Otto Group: Profits From Prediction 413
10.1 What are the unique features of e-commerce, digital markets, and digital goods? 415
E-Commerce Today 416 • The New E-Commerce: Social, Mobile, Local 417 • Why E-Commerce Is Different 419 • Key Concepts in E-Commerce: Digital Markets and Digital Goods in a Global Marketplace 422
10.2 What are the principal e-commerce business and revenue models? 426
Types of E-commerce 426 • E-commerce Business Models 426 • E-Commerce Revenue Models 429
10.3 How has e-commerce transformed marketing? 431
Interactive Session: Organizations Can Pandora Succeed with Freemium? 432
Behavioral Targeting 434 • Social E-commerce and Social Network Marketing 437
10.4 How has e-commerce affected business-to-business transactions? 440
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) 441 • New Ways of B2B Buying and Selling 442
10.5 What is the role of m-commerce in business and what are the most important in-commerce applications? 444
Location-based Services and Applications 444
Interactive Session: Technology Will Mobile Technology Put Orbitz in the Lead? 446
Other mobile commerce services 447
10.6 What issues must be addressed when building an e-commerce presence? 448
Develop an E-commerce Presence Map 448 * Develop a Timeline: Milestones 449
Review Summary 450 • Key Terms 451 • Review Questions 452 • Discussion Questions 452
Hands-On MIS Projects 452
Management Decision Problems 452 • Improving Decision Making: Using Spreadsheet Software to Analyze a Dot-Com Business 453 • Achieving Operational Excellence: Evaluating E-Commerce Hosting Services 453
Collaboration and Teamwork: 453
Case Study: 'Tb Pay or Not to Pay: Zagat's Dilemma 454
References: 457

Chapter 11 Managing Knowledge 458
Opening Case: Fiat: Real Time Management with Business Intelligence 459 11.1 What is the role of knowledge management systems in business? 461
Important Dimensions of Knowledge 462 • The Knowledge Management Value Chain 463 erypes of Knowledge Management Systems 466
11.2 What types of systems are used for enterprise-wide knowledge management and how do they provide value for businesses? 467
Enterprise Content Management Systems 467 • Locating and Sharing Expertise 469 • Learning Management Systems 469
11.3 What are the major types of knowledge work systems and how do they provide value for firms? 470
Knowledge Workers and Knowledge Work 470 • Requirements of Knowledge Work Systems 470 • Examples of Knowledge Work Systems 471
Interactive Session: Technology Firewire Surfboards Light Up with CAD 472
11.4 What are the business benefits of using intelligent techniques for knowledge management? 474
Capturing Knowledge: Expert Systems 475 • Organizational Intelligence: Case-Based Reasoning 478 • Fuzzy Logic Systems 478 • Machine Learning 480
Interactive Session: Organizations Big Data Makes Cities Smarter 483 Intelligent Agents 485 • Hybrid AI Systems 487
Review Summary 487 • Key Terms 488 • Review Questions 488 • Discussion Questions 489
Hands-On MIS Projects 489
Management Decision Problems 489 • Improving Decision Making: Building a Simple Expert System for Retirement Planning 490 • Improving Decision Making: Using Intelligent Agents for Comparison Shopping 490
Collaboration and Ibamwork: 490
Case Study: Knowledge Management and Collaboration at TMa Consulting Services 491
References: 494

Chapter 12                 Enhancing Decision Making 496
Opening Case: Germany Wins the World Cup with Big Data at Its Side 497
12.1 What are the different types of decisions and how does the decision-making process work? How do information systems support the activities of managers and management decision making? 499
Business Value of Improved Decision Making 500 elypes of Decisions 500 • The Decision-Making Process 502 • Managers and Decision Making in the Real World 503 • High-Velocity Automated Decision Making 506
12.2 How do business intelligence and business analytics support decision making? 506
What is Business Intelligence? 507 • The Business Intelligence Environment 507 • Business Intelligence and Analytics Capabilities 509 •
Interactive Session: Technology Analytics Help the Cincinnati Zoo Know Its Customers 512
Interactive Session: Management America's Cup: The nnsion between Technology and Human Decision Makers 515
Management Strategies for Developing BI and BA Capabilities 517
12.3 How do different decision-making constituencies in an organization use business intelligence? What is the role of information systems in helping people working in a group make decisions more efficiently? 518
Decision Support for Operational and Middle Management 518 • Decision Support for Senior Management: Balanced Scorecard and Enterprise Performance Management Methods 520 • Group Decision-Support Systems (GDSS) 522
Review Summary 523 • Key Terms 524 • Review Questions 524 • Discussion Questions 525
Hands-On MIS Projects 525
Management Decision Problems 525 • Improving Decision Making: Using Pivot Tables to Analyze Sales Data 525 • Improving Decision Making: Using a Web-Based DSS for Retirement Planning 526
Collaboration and Teamwork: 526
Case Study: How Much Does Data-Driven Planting Help Farmers? 527 References: 530

Part Four Building and Managing Systems 531
Chapter 13 Building Information Systems 532
Opening Case: New Systems Help Work Flow More Smoothly at Moen 533 13.1 How does building new systems produce organizational change? 535
Systems Development and Organizational Change 535 • Business Process Redesign 537
13.2 What are the core activities in the systems development process? 541 Systems Analysis 541
Interactive Session: Organizations Burton Snowboards Speeds Ahead with Nimble Business Processes 542
Systems Design 544 • Completing the Systems Development Process 545
13.3 What are the principal methodologies for modeling and designing systems? 547
Structured Methodologies 547 • Object-Oriented Development 550 • Computer-Aided Software Engineering 551
13.4 What are alternative methods for building information systems? 552
Traditional Systems Life Cycle 552 • Prototyping 553 • End-User Development 555 • Application Software Packages and Outsourcing 556
13.5 What are new approaches for system building in the digital firm era? 558
Rapid Application Development (RAD) 559 • Component-Based Development and Web Services 559 • Mobile Application Development: Designing for a Multi-Screen World 560
Interactive Session: Technology What Does It Mike to Go Mobile? 562
Review Summary 564 • Key Terms 565 • Review Questions 565 • Discussion Questions 566
Hands-On MIS Projects 566
Management Decision Problems 566 • Improving Decision Making: Using Database Software to Design a Customer System for Auto Sales 567 • Achieving Operational Excellence: Analyzing Web Site Design and Information Requirements 568
Collaboration and Teamwork: 568
Case Study: SourceGas Goes for Better Workforce Scheduling Systems 568 References: 571

Chapter 14 Managing Projects 572
Opening Case: Nu Skin's New Human Resources System Project Puts People First 573
14.1 What are the objectives of project management and why is it so essential in developing information systems? 575
Runaway Projects and System Failure 575
Interactive Session: Management Westinghouse Electric Takes on the Risks of a "Big Bang" Project 577
Project Management Objectives 578
Interactive Session: Organizations Britain's National Health Service Jettisons Choose and Book System 579
14.2 What methods can be used for selecting and evaluating information systems projects and aligning them with the firm's business goals? 581
Management Structure for Information Systems Projects 581 • Linking Systems Projects to the Business Plan 582 • Information Requirements and Key Performance Indicators 584 • Portfolio Analysis 584 • Scoring Models 584
14.3 How can firms assess the business value of information systems? 585
Information System Cost and Benefits 585 • Real Options Pricing Models 588 • Limitations of Financial Models 589
14.4 What are the principal risk factors in information systems projects, and how can they be managed? 589
Dimensions of Project Risk 589 • Change Management and the Concept of Implementation 590 • Controlling Risk Factors 592 • Designing for the Organization 595 • Project Management Software Thols 596
Review Summary 597 • Key Terms 598 • Review Questions 598 • Discussion Questions 599
Hands-On MIS Projects 599
Management Decision Problems 599 • Improving Decision Making: Using Spreadsheet Software for Capital Budgeting for a New CAD System 600 • Improving Decision Making: Using Web Tools for Buying and Financing a Home 600
Collaboration and Teamwork: 600
Case Study: A Shaky Start for Healthcare.gov 601
References: 604

Chapter 15                 Managing Global Systems 606
Opening Case: LOr6al's Global Makeover 607
15.1 What major factors are driving the internationalization of business? 609
Developing an International Information Systems Architecture 610 • The Global Environment: Business Drivers and Challenges 611 • State of the Art 614
15.2 What are the alternative strategies for developing global businesses? 615
Global Strategies and Business Organization 615 • Global Systems to Fit the Strategy 616 • Reorganizing the Business 617
15.3 What are the challenges posed by global information systems and management solutions for these challenges? 618
A Typical Scenario: Disorganization on a Global Scale 618 • Global Systems Strategy 619 • The Management Solution: Implementation 622
15.4 What are the issues and technical alternatives to be considered when developing international information systems? 623
Computing Platforms and Systems Integration 623 • Connectivity 624 • Software Localization 625
Interactive Session: Organizations E-Commerce Russian-Style 626
Interactive Session: Management South Korea's Restricted Internet 628
Review Summary 629 • Key Terms 630 • Review Questions 630 • Discussion Questions 631
Hands-On MIS Projects 631
Management Decision Problems 631 • Achieving Operational Excellence: Building a Job Database and Web Page for an International Consulting Firm 632 • Improving Decision Making: Conducting International Marketing and Pricing Research 632
Collaboration and Teamwork: 632
Case Study: Unilever's Push Thward Unified Global Systems 633
References: 636


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