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INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS A Managerial Perspective Eighth Edition Global Edition,Ricky W.Griffin

  Judul Buku : INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS A Managerial Perspective Eighth Edition Global Edition

Judul Buku:INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS A Managerial Perspective Eighth Edition Global Edition
Pengarang:Ricky W. Griffin & Michael W. Pustay
Penerbit:PEARSON
Cetakan:Eighth Edition
Tahun Terbit:2015
Bahasa:Inggris
Jumlah Halaman:624
Kertas Isi:HVS
Cover:Soft
Ukuran:22 x 28
Berat:1200
Kondisi:Baru
Harga: Rp503,000


Stock:1


INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS A Managerial Perspective Eighth Edition Global Edition
Pengarang : Ricky W. Griffin & Michael W. Pustay
Penerbit : PEAESON

CONTENT

Maps 19
Preface 21
Acknowledgments 24 About the Authors 25
PART 1 The World's Marketplaces 26
Chapter 1 An Overview of International Business 26
The Business of the Olympics 27
What Is International Business? 28
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: Borders Do Matter 29
Why Study International Business? 29
International Business Activities 31
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: The Early Era of International Business 31
Exporting and Importing 32
International Investments 32
Other Forms of International Business Activity 33
The Contemporary Causes of Globalization 34
Strategic Imperatives 36
The Environmental Causes of Globalization 37
VENTURING ABROAD: Manchester City in Dubai 37
Globalization and Emerging Markets 38
An Overview of the Contents of This Book 40
Chapter Review 42 •
Summary 42 •
Questions for Discussion 42 • Building Global Skills 43
CLOSING CASE: Demography Is Destiny 43
Endnotes 46

Chapter 2 Global Marketplaces and Business Centers 48
The Northwest Passage 49
The Marketplaces of North America 50
The United States 50
Canada 52
EMERGING OPPORTUNITIES: Classifying Countries by Income Levels 53
Mexico 54
Central America and the Caribbean 54
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: The Canals of Commerce 54
The Marketplaces of Western Europe 55
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: The EU's Growth Engine 57
The Marketplaces of Eastern Europe and Central Asia 58
The Marketplaces of Asia 61 Japan 61
Australia and New Zealand 61 The Four Tigers 63
China 65
India 67
Southeast Asian Countries 67
The Marketplaces of Africa and the Middle East 67
Africa 68
Middle East 68
The Marketplaces of South America 70
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: Brazil Bolsters Its Families 72
Chapter Review 73 •
Summary 73 •
Questions for Discussion 74
Building Global Skills 74
CLOSING CASE: Fracturing the Energy Market 75
Endnotes 77

Chapter 3 Legal, Technological, Accounting, and Political Environments 78
When Is an iPhone Not an iPhone? 79 The Legal Environment 79
E-WORLD: Law and the Internet 80
Differences in Legal Systems 80
VENTURING ABROAD: How Important Is the Rule of Law? 83
Domestically Oriented Laws 84
Laws Directly Affecting International Business Transactions 85
Laws Directed against Foreign Firms 86
The Impacts of MNCs on Host Countries 87
Dispute Resolution in International Business 88
The Technological Environment 89
The Accounting Environment 92 The Roots of National Differences 92
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: The Sarbanes-Oxley Act 94
Differences in Accounting Practices 95
VENTURING ABROAD: Chinese Accounting Buries Caterpillar's Investment 95
Impact on Capital Markets 97
The Political Environment 98
Political Risk                   98
Chapter Review 101 • Summary 101 • Questions for Discussion 102
Building Global Skills 102
CLOSING CASE: Tiny Islands, Big Trouble 103
Endnotes 105

Chapter 4 The Role of Culture 108
Bollywood, Hollywood, and Nollywood 109
Characteristics of Culture 110
E-WORLD: The Internet, National Competitiveness, and Culture 110
Elements of Culture 111
Social Structure 111
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: Japan's Demographic and Cultural Challenges 112
Language 114
Communication 118
Religion 120
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: Islamic Finance 122
Values and Attitudes 123
Seeing the Forest, Not the Trees 125
Hall's Low-Context—High-Context Approach 125
The Cultural Cluster Approach 126
Hofstede's Five Dimensions 127
Social Orientation 127
Power Orientation 130 Uncertainty Orientation 133 Goal Orientation 134
Time Orientation 135
International Management and Cultural Differences 135
Understanding New Cultures 135
VENTURING ABROAD: McDonald's Fits In 136
Chapter Review 137 • Summary 137 • Questions for Discussion 138
Building Global Skills 138
CLOSING CASE: Quacking Up a Storm of Business 138
Endnotes 140

Chapter 5 Ethics and Social Responsibility in International Business 142
Foxconn: Managing 1.5 Million Employees 143
The Nature of Ethics and Social Responsibility in International Business 144
Ethics in Cross-Cultural and International Contexts 146
How an Organization Treats Its Employees 146
How Employees Treat the Organization 148
How Employees and the Organization Treat Other Economic Agents 148
Managing Ethical Behavior Across Borders 149
Guidelines and Codes of Ethics 149
VENTURING ABROAD: Siemens Pays—and Pays and Pays 150
Ethics Training 150
Organizational Practices and the Corporate Culture 151
Corporate Social Responsibility in Cross-Cultural and International Contexts 151
The Economic Mission 152
Sustainability and the Natural Environment 152
PEOPLE, PLANET, AND PROFITS: Lions and Tigers and Bears, oh My! 153
General Social Welfare 154
Managing Social Responsibility Across Borders 156
Approaches to Social Responsibility 156
Managing Compliance 157
PEOPLE, PLANET, AND PROFITS: e-Waste 158
Informal Dimensions of Social Responsibility 159
Evaluating Social Responsibility 160
Difficulties of Managing CSR Across Borders 161
The Anglo-Saxon Approach 161
The Asian Approach 161
The Continental European Approach 161
Regulating International Ethics and Social Responsibility 162
EMERGING OPPORTUNITIES: Conflict Diamonds 163
Chapter Review 164 • Summary 164 • Questions for Discussion 165
Building Global Skills 165
CLOSING CASE: BP: Safety First or Profits First? 166
Endnotes 167
PART 1: CLOSING CASES: KFC in China 169
A Pipeline of Good Intentions 171
The Oil Curse 173
PART 2 The International Environment 176

Chapter 6 International Trade and Investment 176
Trade Is Blossoming 177
International Trade and the World -Economy 178
Classical Country-Based Trade Theories 179
Mercantilism 179
Absolute Advantage 180
Comparative Advantage 181
Comparative Advantage with Money 182
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: The Lincoln Fallacy 183
Relative Factor Endowments 185
Modern Firm-Based Trade Theories 187
Product Life Cycle Theory 187
Country Similarity Theory 189
New Trade Theory 189
Porter's Theory of National Competitive Advantage 191
VENTURING ABROAD: Birds of a Feather Flock Together 194
An Overview of International Investment 195
Types of International Investments 195
VENTURING ABROAD: The New Player in Global Capital Markets: Sovereign Wealth Funds 195
The Growth of FDI 196
FDI and the United States 197
International Investment Theories 199
Ownership Advantages 199
Internalization Theory 199
Dunning's Eclectic Theory 199
Factors Influencing FDI 200
Supply Factors 200
Demand Factors 201
Political Factors 202
Chapter Review 203 • Summary 203 • Questions for Discussion 204
Building Global Skills 204
CLOSING CASE: The Growing Trade in Growing Grapes 204
Endnotes 206

Chapter 7 The International Monetary System and the Balance of Payments 208
A Global Currency War? 209
History of the International Monetary System 210
The Gold Standard 210
The Collapse of the Gold Standard 211
The Bretton Woods Era 213
The End of the Bretton Woods System 216
Performance of the International Monetary System Since 1971 218
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: Fixed versus Flexible Exchange Rates 219
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: Should Bretton Woods
Be Restored? 222
The BOP Accounting System 222
The Major Components of the BOP Accounting System 223
The U.S. BOP in 2012 227
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: Ben Franklin,
World Traveler 228
Defining BOP Surpluses and Deficits 230
Chapter Review 232 • Summary 232 • Questions for Discussion 233
Building Global Skills 233
CLOSING CASE: Recent U.S. BOP Performance: Is the Sky Falling? 234 Endnotes 235 1

Chapter 8 Foreign Exchange and International Financial Markets 236
The Loonie Takes Flight 237
The Economics of Foreign Exchange 238
The Structure of the Foreign- Exchange Market 241
The Role of Banks 241
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: A Brief Hint 243 Spot and Forward Markets 244
Arbitrage and the Currency Market 246
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: The Big Mac Index 248
The International Capital Market 251
VENTURING ABROAD: The Carry Trade 252
Major International Banks 252
The Eurocurrency Market 254
The International Bond Market 254
Global Equity Markets 255
Offshore Financial Centers 255
Chapter Review 256 • Summary 256 • Questions for Discussion 257
Building Global Skills 257
CLOSING CASE: What Is Next for Chinese Manufacturing? 258
Endnotes 259

Chapter 9 Formulation of National Trade Policies 260
Huawei Leads the Way 261
Rationales for Trade Intervention 262
Industry-Level Arguments 263
National Trade Policies 266
Barriers to International Trade 270
Tariffs 270
VENTURING ABROAD: Emirates Airline Expansion – The Case of the Canadian Market 270
Nontariff Barriers 272
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: The Fight over Rare Earths 275
Promotion of International Trade 278
Subsidies 278
Foreign Trade Zones 279
PEOPLE, PLANET, AND PROFITS: Cotton Subsidies and World Poverty 280 Export Financing Programs 281
Controlling Unfair Trade Practices 281
Countervailing Duties 282
Antidumping Regulations 282
Should Countries Enforce Their Unfair Trade Practice Laws? 283
Safeguards 283
Chapter Review 284
Summary 284
Questions for Discussion 284
Building Global Skills 285
CLOSING CASE: Green Energy and Free Trade 285
Endnotes 287

Chapter 10 International Cooperation Among Nations 290
Trade and Prosperity: The Case of Mexico 291
The General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade and the World Trade Organization 292
The Role of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 292
PEOPLE, PLANET, AND PROFITS: Protecting Endangered Species 293
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: Most Nations Are Favored 294
The World Trade Organization 295
Regional Economic Integration 297
Forms of Economic Integration 297
The Impact of Economic Integration on Firms 298
The European Union 299
Governing the EU 301
The Struggle to Create a Common Market 305
VENTURING ABROAD: Lobbying the European Union 306
From Common Market to European Union 306
VENTURING ABROAD: The Tobin Tax 310
Other Regional Trading Blocs 310
The North American Free Trade Agreement 310
Other Free Trade Agreements in the Americas 311
Trade Arrangements in the Asia-Pacific Region 313
African Initiatives 315
Chapter Review 316 • Summary 316 • Questions for Discussion 317
Building Global Skills 317
CLOSING CASE: The European Union's Challenges 318 Endnotes 320
PART 2: CLOSING CASES: Twenty-First Century Pirates 321 Jumbo Battle over Jumbo Jets 322
Will Whirlpool Clean Up in Europe? 323
PART 3 Managing International Business 326

Chapter 11 International Strategic Management 326
Global Mickey 327
The Challenges of International Strategic Management 328
EMERGING OPPORTUNITIES: How Does a Japanese Firm Compete in China? ... Act More American 331
Strategic Alternatives 332
VENTURING ABROAD: Master of the Furniture Universe 334
Components of an International Strategy 336
Distinctive Competence 336
Scope of Operations 337
Resource Deployment 337
Synergy 337
Developing International Strategies 338
Mission Statement 338
Environmental Scanning and the SWOT Analysis 338
Strategic Goals 341
Tactics 341
E-WORLD: Nokia: No Longer King of the Hill 342 Control Framework 342
Levels of International Strategy 343
Corporate Strategy 343
Business Strategy 345
Functional Strategies 347
Chapter Review 348 • Summary 348 • Questions for Discussion 348
Building Global Skills 349
CLOSING CASE: The New Conquistador 349
Endnotes 352

Chapter 12 Strategies for Analyzing and Entering Foreign Markets 354 The Business of Luxury 355
Foreign Market Analysis 356
Assessing Alternative Foreign Markets 356
EMERGING OPPORTUNITIES: The Bottom of the Pyramid 358
Evaluating Costs, Benefits, and Risks 359
Choosing a Mode of Entry 360
Exporting to Foreign Markets 364
Forms of Exporting 365
Additional Considerations 367
VENTURING ABROAD: Dnata — Global Growth Strategy 368
Export Intermediaries 369
International Licensing 370
Basic Issues In International Licensing 373
Advantages and Disadvantages of International Licensing 374
International Franchising 375
Basic Issues in International Franchising 375
Advantages and Disadvantages of International Franchising 375
Specialized Entry Modes for International Business 376
Contract Manufacturing 376 Management Contract 376
Turnkey Project 376
EMERGING OPPORTUNITIES: Business Process Outsourcing 377
Foreign Direct Investment 378 The Greenfield Strategy 378 The Acquisition Strategy 379
Joint Ventures 380
Chapter Review 380 • Summary 380 • Questions for Discussion 381 • Building Global Skills 381
CLOSING CASE: The House of Tata 382
Endnotes 384

Chapter 13 International Strategic Alliances 386
The European Cereal Wars 387 International Corporate Cooperation 388
Benefits of Strategic Alliances 389
Ease of Market Entry 389
Shared Risk 390
Shared Knowledge and Expertise 390
Synergy and Competitive Advantage 391
Scope of Strategic Alliances 391
Comprehensive Alliances 391
Functional Alliances 392
VENTURING ABROAD: Alliances in the Sky 393
Implementation of Strategic Alliances 395
Selection of Partners 395
Form of Ownership 396
VENTURING ABROAD: Learning by Doing 396
PEOPLE, PLANET, AND PROFITS: Alliances for Good 398
Joint Management Considerations 399
Pitfalls of Strategic Alliances 400
Incompatibility of Partners 400
EMERGING OPPORTUNITIES: Xi's in Charge 401
Access to Information 402
Conflicts over Distributing Earnings 402
Loss of Autonomy 402
Changing Circumstances 403
Chapter Review 403 • Summary 403
Questions for Discussion 404
Building Global Skills 404
CLOSING CASE: Look Before You Leap 405
Endnotes 406

Chapter 14 International Organization Design and Control 408
Lenovo Spreads Its Global Wings 409
The Nature of International Organizational Design 410
Global Organization Designs 411
Global Product Design 412
Global Area Design 413
Global Functional Design 414
Global Customer Design 416
Global Matrix Design 416
VENTURING ABROAD: Alshaya's Matrix Design 418
Hybrid Global Designs 418
Related Issues in Global Organization Design 420
Centralization versus Decentralization 420
Role of Subsidiary Boards of Directors 420 Coordination in the Global Organization 421
The Control Function in International Business 422
Strategic Control 422
Organizational Control 425
Operations Control 427
PEOPLE, PLANET, AND PROFITS: Toward Zero Waste? 427
Managing the Control Function in International Business 428
Establishing International Control Systems 428
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: Ford Aims High 429
Essential Control Techniques 432
Behavioral Aspects of International Control 433
Chapter Review 434 • Summary 434 • Questions for Discussion 435
Building Global Skills 435
CLOSING CASE: Mining a New Organization Design 436
Endnotes 438

Chapter 15 Leadership and Employee Behavior in International
Business 440
Leadership Issues at Toyota 441
Individual Behavior in International Business 442
Personality Differences Across Cultures 442
Attitudes Across Cultures 445
Perception Across Cultures 446
Stress Across Cultures 447
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: Stressing Out in the Call Centers 447
Motivation in International Business 448
Needs and Values Across Cultures 448
Motivational Processes Across Cultures 449
Need-Based Models Across Cultures 449
Process-Based Models Across Cultures 450
The Reinforcement Model Across Cultures 451
Leadership in International Business 451
Contemporary Leadership Theory 451
The GLOBE Leadership Project 454
Decision Making in International Business 455
Models of Decision Making 455
The Normative Model Across Cultures 456
The Descriptive Model Across Cultures 457
VENTURING ABROAD: Mixing and Matching in a Joint Venture 458
Groups and Teams in International Business 458
The Nature of Group Dynamics 458
Managing Cross-cultural Teams 459
Chapter Review 460
Summary 460
Questions for Discussion 460
Building Global Skills 461
CLOSING CASE: Ikea's Transformational Leader 461
Endnotes 462
PART 3: CLOSING CASES: Reinventing Nissan 465
Slimline: Marching to a Different Drummer 467
Unilever Matches Strategy and Structure 468
PART 4 Managing International Business Operations 470

Chapter 16 International Marketing 470
Conquering with Stalls 471
International Marketing Management 472
 International Marketing and Business Strategies 472
The Marketing Mix 474
EMERGING OPPORTUNITIES: Pretty Garlic 475
Standardization versus Customization 475
Product Policy 478
Standardized Products or Customized Products? 479
Legal Forces 479
Cultural Influences 479
Economic Factors 480
Brand Names 481
Pricing Issues and Decisions 481
Pricing Policies 482 Market Pricing 483
Promotion Issues and Decisions 485
Advertising 485
VENTURING ABROAD: Putting the Greek into Yogurt 486
E-WORLD: ZQu6 Pasa in the Ad Agency? 487
Personal Selling 488 Sales Promotion 488
Public Relations 489
Distribution Issues and Decisions 490
International Distribution 490
Channels of Distribution 491
Chapter Review 494 * Summary 494 • Questions for Discussion 494
  • Building Global Skills 494
CLOSING CASE: Novica Opens Doors Across National Boundaries 495 Endnotes 496

Chapter 17 International Operations Management 498
Racing to Market 499
The Nature of International Operations Management 500
The Strategic Context of International Operations Management 501
PEOPLE, PLANET, AND PROFITS: Asking for Government Regulation 502 Complexities of International Operations Management 502
Production Management 503
Supply Chain Management and Vertical Integration 503
Location Decisions 507
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: Dealing with the Unexpected 507 International Logistics and Materials Management 510
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: Moving Here, Moving There... 511
International Service Operations 513
Characteristics of International Services 513
The Role of Government in International Services Trade 514
Managing Service Operations 514
Managing Productivity in International Business 515
Managing Quality in International Business 516
Managing Information in International Business 518
Chapter Review 520 • Summary 520 • Questions for Discussion 520
Building Global Skills 521
CLOSING CASE: Out Supply-Chaining the King of Supply Chainers 522
Endnotes 523

Chapter 18 International Financial Management 524
Singapore Airlines's Worldwide Financial Management 525
Financial Issues in International Trade 525
Choice of Currency 526
Credit Checking 526
Method of Payment 526
Financing Trade 534
Managing Foreign Exchange Risk 534
Transaction Exposure 534
Translation Exposure 537
Economic Exposure 537
Management of Working Capital 540
Minimizing Working Capital Balances 540
Minimizing Currency Conversion Costs 541
Minimizing Foreign-Exchange Risk 542
International Capital Budgeting 543
Net Present Value 543
Internal Rate of Return 544
Payback Period 544
Sources of International Investment Capital 545
External Sources of Investment Capital 545 Internal Sources of Investment Capital 546 Strategic Use of Transfer Pricing 547
VENTURING ABROAD: Taxation of Foreign Subsidiary Income by the U.S. Government 549
EMERGING OPPORTUNITIES: Sun, Sand, and Shells 550
Tax Havens 550
Chapter Review 552 • Summary 552 • Questions for Discussion 553
Building Global Skills 553
CLOSING CASE: Double Irish and a Dutch Sandwich 554
Endnotes 556

Chapter 19 International Human Resource Management and Labor Relations 558
An Emerging Voice for Workers 559
The Nature of International Human Resource Management 560 Strategic Significance of HRM 560
International Managerial Staffing Needs 562 Scope of Internationalization 562
Centralization versus Decentralization of Control 563
EMERGING OPPORTUNITIES: Thinking Globally but Hiring Locally 563 Staffing Philosophy 564
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: Schlumberger Profits from Geocentric Staffing 565
Recruitment and Selection 566 Recruitment of Managers 567
Selection of Managers 568
Expatriation and Repatriation Issues 569
Training and Development 570Assessing Training Needs 570
Basic Training Methods and Procedures 571
Developing Younger International Managers 572
Performance Appraisal and Compensation 573
Assessing Performance in International Business 573
Determining Compensation in International Business 573
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS: Japanese Management
Techniques in China 577
Retention and Turnover 578
Human Resource Issues for Nonmanagerial Employees 579
Recruitment and Selection 579 Training and Development 580
Compensation and Performance Appraisal 580
Labor Relations 581
Comparative Labor Relations 581
Collective Bargaining 582
Union Influence and Codetermination 582
Chapter Review 583
Summary 583
Questions for Discussion 584
Building Global Skills 584
CLOSING CASE: The Chicago Food and Beverage Company 584 Endnotes 586
Part 4: CLOSING CASES: The Aramco Advantage 587
The Power of Microfinance: The Grameen Bank 588
Nucor Navigates the New Global Economy 588

Glossary 592
Name Index 606 Company Index 609 Subject Index 614

KEMBALI KE HALAMAN AWAL

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